Message the Host for additional information.
We are under the Guidelines of Rehabilitation Facilities, as such, our agency does require masks when in the common spaces and we are actively practicing social distancing. Therefore, we do limit the number of people within areas of the building. The office is regularly cleaned with monitoring logs to ensure sanitation standards are maintained.
Please see the attached Infection Control Policy and Procedures for additional information and guidelines.
THE Institute- POLICIES AND PROCEDURES _
EFFECTIVE DATE: 2/24/02 APPROVED: 03/07/02 REVIEWED: 07/01/19
SUBJECT: INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAM
The purpose of the Infection Control Program is to identify and reduce risk of endemic and epidemic infections to our clients, staff, volunteers, visitors, and family members and coordinate all activities related to surveillance, prevention, and control of infections.
The Infection Control Program at THE Institute shall identify, prevent when possible, reduce the risk of, detect, evaluate, and follow up all infections occurring in THE Institute. Although we realize that various kinds of infections will always be present within the environment, our goal is to keep them to an absolute minimum. This goal can be accomplished only through continued education of the staff and through strict adherence to accepted methods of infection control.
Prevention and education
THE Institute works very hard at preventing infections. Frequent educational materials being distributed by the Chief Executive Officer/clinical director or a designee and in-house training in infection control procedures aid in preventing infections. All staff at THE Institute are required to have training in AIDS, Blood borne Pathogens and TB. Four hours of AIDS training is required upon hire with one-hour updates annually. Blood borne pathogen and TB updates are required every three years. Licensed staff must meet mandatory licensure requirements.
The Chief Executive Officer/clinical director or her designee through staff memos and training, keeps staff informed of any seasonal infection control problems as well as new information about infection control issues.
A pathogen is an infection causing agent (germ). Pathogens are the cause of communicable diseases. Bacteria, viruses, fungus, and parasites can all be pathogens. The most common pathogens are bacteria and viruses.
Communicable diseases are diseases that are caused by bacteria, virus, fungus, or parasites. They are spread from person to person, or animal to person, through direct or indirect contact.
Examples of Diseases Caused by Bacteria:
Staph infection (including MRSA)
Examples of Diseases Caused by Virus:
Examples of Disease Caused by Fungus:
Examples of Diseases Caused by Parasites:
Chain of Infection
Causative agent - This is the disease causing agent (bacteria, virus, fungus, parasite).
Reservoir-This is the initial infected person, where the causative agent lives.
Mode of escape - This is how the causative agent gets out of the reservoir. Sneezing or coughing are examples of mode of escape.
Mode of transfer - This is how a disease transfer after it has escaped (contaminated hands, polluted water or food, etc.)
Mode of entry - This is how the disease enters the new host (break in skin, mucus membrane, etc.)
Susceptible host - People, animals, insects, birds, plants
Methods of Disease Transmission
Direct contact transmission: occurs when infected blood or body fluid from one person enters another person’s body (blood splash to the eye).
Indirect contact transmission: occurs when a person touches an object that contains the blood or body fluid of an infected person.
Droplet contact transmission: Occurs when droplets of fluid generated by coughing, sneezing, etc. come into contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth of another person. These droplets are relatively heavy, and cannot stay suspended in the air for long.
Airborne transmission: This is similar to droplet transmission. During airborne transmission, however, the particles that transmit disease are lighter, and capable of staying airborne for longer periods of time.
Oral-fecal transmission: Occurs when food, water, or an object contaminated by the feces of a human or an animal comes into contact with the mouth of another person.
Vector transmission: Occurs when the bite of an animal, such as a mosquito, transmits disease.
Signs/Symptoms of Possible Communicable Disease:
Red or runny eyes
Swelling or tenderness of glands, face, neck, or genital area
Headache/stiffness of neck
Sudden or drastic change of behavior
Tuberculosis is a serious communicable disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can be detected through skin tests, chest X-rays, signs and symptoms, sputum cultures, and CT or MR scans. It is very important that direct support professionals be tested (usually a skin test). This can minimize the spread of tuberculosis.
Signs and Symptoms of Tuberculosis
Coughing up thick mucous (sometimes bloody)
Loss of appetite
MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that does not react to certain antibiotics. It typically causes skin infections, but can also cause other infection, including pneumonia. MRSA does not usually, but can lead to death. It is spread by skin-to-skin contact, touching a personal item that touched the infected person, or touching a surface that touched the infected person.
What Does a MRSA Infection Look Like?
Signs include a bump or infected skin area that is:
Red, swollen, and painful
Warm to the touch
Full of pus or other drainage
Accompanied by a fever
Meningitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the membranes surrounding the spine and brain.
It can be caused by either a virus or bacteria.
Bacterial meningitis is spread through contact with the respiratory or throat secretions of an infected person.
Viral meningitis is typically spread through contact with the fecal matter of an infected person.
Signs and Symptoms of Meningitis
Sensitivity to light
Altered mental status
Examples of Diseases Spread Through Food/Water
Symptoms of Food-Borne Illness
Preventing Food-Borne Illness
Handle food safely
Wash hands regularly
Do not eat or drink anything that smells, tastes, or looks spoiled
Do not eat from bulging cans
Do not drink or swim in contaminated water
Food Preparation and handling at THE Institute
Food can be contaminated and if left unrefrigerated or not heated properly before serving, germs will multiply and may cause infection when the food is eaten.
Instructions for Food handling and consumption on company premises:
Heat food thoroughly. Do not just warm up.
Refrigerate foods after opening and cooking.
Do not eat raw meats or raw eggs or leave raw food on counters
Wash utensils and other items that come in contact with raw meats or raw eggs before using for other purposes.
Be certain the microwave remains clean of food debris that can contaminate other dishes of food heated afterwards.
Be sure food stored in refrigerator is exposed of by expiration date, do not leave open food containers int company refrigerator.
Food should not be left in offices, on desks, in desk drawers
Pest Control: Pest control service and maintenance are contracted by an outside company on a schedule controlled by the building owner. Food left in desks are subject to exposure to pest control chemicals.
A blood borne pathogen is a microorganism that is present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens are spread through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, semen, or vaginal secretions. They are not spread by coughing, sneezing, or casual contact.
Three Bloodborne Pathogens That Cause Serious Disease
HIV (the virus that causes AIDS)
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
This is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
AIDS is an illness characterized by the failure of the immune system to defend against other diseases. This leads to severe infection by opportunistic pathogens.
While there are medications that can help a person infected with AIDS, there is no cure.
Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver that is caused by the Hepatitis B virus.
There are medications that can help a person infected with Hepatitis B, as well as a vaccination series that can prevent a person from becoming infected. There is, however, no cure.
Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the Hepatitis C virus.
There is no vaccination for Hepatitis C.
While there is no real cure, the medication interferon has shown to be very effective at treating Hepatitis C in some cases.
Materials Potentially Infected with Bloodborne Pathogens
Saliva is only considered infectious during dental procedures (potential presence of blood)
Treat any potentially infectious material as if it were infected.
Use appropriate protective practices (such as hand washing), and appropriate protective equipment (such as gloves, masks, gowns, or breathing barriers)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires practices of infection control to protect Staff Members from occupational exposure to potentially infectious materials (blood, body fluids).
OSHA has issued regulations about on-the-job exposure to
bloodborne pathogens. OSHA requires that employers reduce or remove hazards from the
workplace that may place Staff Members in contact with infectious materials. These regulations apply to Staff Members who may be exposed to blood or
other body substances that could cause infection. The Bloodborne Pathogens Standard was revised in 2001 in response to
passage of the federal Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act.
Four Conditions Needed for Disease Transmission to Occur
A pathogen must be present.
There must be a sufficient quantity.
The pathogen must have an entry site.
The person must be susceptible to the pathogen.
Always use universal precautions when there is potential for exposure.
Regular cleaning and disinfecting of household surfaces, as well as hands, can reduce the quantity and presence of pathogens.
Using barrier devices, such as gloves and breathing barriers, can block the entry of pathogens.
Vaccinations can reduce the susceptibility of an individual to specific diseases.
Personal Precautions: Hand-Washing
Wet hands with water.
Scrub hands vigorously for 15-20 seconds (make sure to get all surfaces).
Rinse hands with water.
Dry hands (preferably with paper towel)
Turn off faucet with paper towel.
Wash hands frequently.
Personal Protective Equipment: Breathing Barriers
Always use an approved breathing barrier when performing the rescue breathing step of CPR.
Personal Protective Equipment: Gloves
Always wear disposable gloves when you suspect potential for exposure.
Never reuse disposable gloves.
Do not contaminate your hands when removing gloves.
Do not contaminate other surfaces (pens, tables, your face) by touching them with soiled gloves.
Personal Protective Equipment: Gowns, Eye Shields
Use any time when blood or fluids are expected to be spurting or splashing.
Spill Clean-up (Use Spill Kit if Available)
Wear protective equipment (gloves).
Clean up spill as soon as possible.
Do not touch any sharp objects with your hands (use tongs, or broom & dustpan)
Use absorbent materials to soak up the blood or fluids (paper towel).
Flood the area with an approved disinfectant solution for 10 minutes. OSHA recommends a solution of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water. Do not mix bleach with ammonia, vinegar, any acid, or any product that says on the label to not mix with bleach!
Use absorbent materials to soak up the disinfectant, and dispose of in biohazard container.
Employers are required to provide information on locations to obtain the hepatitis B vaccination series to any Staff Member who has the potential for occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious material.
Exposure Incidents: Immediate Care
Wash needle-stick injuries, or skin exposure with soap and water as soon as possible.
Flush exposures of the mouth or nose with large amounts of water as soon as possible.
Irrigate exposed eyes with clean water or sterile saline solution as soon as possible.
Exposure Incidents: Follow-up
Report any exposure incident immediately to your clinical director.
Document the incident in accordance with your employer’s exposure plan.
Receive a follow up medical evaluation from a health care professional.
Bloodborne Pathogens Training: Preventing Disease Transmission. American Red Cross, 2003
CDC Hepatitis C Fact Sheet, 2005